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Conference Paper
J. Lopez, S. Matamoros, J. J. Ortega, and J. M. Troya, "Observaciones sobre las técnicas de análisis formal de protocolos de seguridad",
VII Reunión Española sobre Criptología y Seguridad de la Información (VII RECSI), pp. 471-483, Septiembre, 2002. More..


La aplicación de los métodos formales para el diseño y análisis de sistemas críticos está ampliamente aceptada en el desarrollo de estos sistemas. Los protocolos de seguridad abordan el objetivo de garantizar servicios y derechos como el de la confidencialidad de los datos personales o el de garantizar la identidad de acceso a un sistema. Por lo tanto, ya que un protocolo de seguridad es un sistema crítico, es necesario utilizar métodosformales para su diseño y análisis. Debido a las características especiales que presentan este tipo de protocolos, se deben utilizar métodos que no son los tradicionales utilizados para los protocolos de comunicaciones, sino que deben utilizarse otros específicos. En este artículo vamos a hacer un estudio de las principales propiedades de seguridad que poseen los protocolos criptográficos y de la manera de aplicar los métodos formales en su diseño y análisis.

PDF icon JavierLopez2002h.pdf (44.34 KB)
R. Rios, J. Cuellar, and J. Lopez, "Ocultación de la estación base en redes inalámbricas de sensores",
XI Jornadas de Ingeniería Telemática (JITEL 2013), J. E. Díaz Verdejo, J. Navarro Ortiz, and J. J. Ramos Muñoz Eds., Asociación de Telemática, pp. 481-486, Oct 2013. More..


La estación base es el elemento más importante en un red de sensores y, por tanto, es necesario evitar que un atacante pueda hacerse con el control de este valioso dispositivo. Para ello, el atacante puede valerse tanto de técnicas de análisis de tráfico como de la captura de nodos. En este trabajo presentamos un esquema que consta de dos fases, la primera está dedicada a homogeneizar los patrones de tráfico y la segunda encargada de perturbar las tablas de rutas de los nodos. Ambas fases permiten mantener a la estación base fuera del alcance del atacante con un coste computacional insignificante y un consumo energético moderado. La validez de nuestro esquema ha sido validada analíticamente y a través de numerosas simulaciones.

PDF icon rios2013b.pdf (348.08 KB)
W.. Caelli, et al., "Online Public Key Infrastructure",
VII Reunión Española sobre Criptología y Seguridad de la Información (VII RECSI), pp. 123-135, Sep 2002.
N. Dai, et al., "OSAMI Commons: An open dynamic services platform for ambient intelligence",
IEEE 16th Conference on Emerging Technologies Factory Automation (ETFA 2011), IEEE, pp. 1-10, Sep 2011. DOI More..


Today we live in an environment surrounded with networked converging devices. Human computer interactions are becoming personalized and a new concept of a global and cross-domain platform is emerging to exploit the full potential of the network in all business areas. In this convergence process, the software platform should be able to personalize itself dynamically in devices according to the context. OSAmI-Commons, an ITEA2 project for developing an open-source common approach to such a dynamic service-based platform, allows any type of device to connect and exchange information and services. OSAMI consortium is contributing to defining the foundations of a cross-platform open-services ecosystem. The sustainability of this platform is an objective beyond the project duration.

A. Nieto, "An Overview of Proactive Forensic Solutions and its Applicability to 5G",
IEEE 5G World Forum (5GWF), IEEE, pp. 191-196, 07/2018. DOI More..


This article analyses the state of the art of proactive forensic solutions and highlights the importance of preparing the 5G ecosystem to serve digital forensic purposes. The analysis considers the current 5G threat landscape from the ENISA report, and discusses how some of the attacks could be mitigated using proactive forensic mechanisms. In addition, the requirements for deploying proactive forensic solutions in 5G are classified, and analysed based on the specific threats against 5G. 

PDF icon Nieto5GWF.pdf (142.87 KB)
Journal Article
D. G. Rosado, E. Fernandez-Medina, and J. Lopez, "Obtaining Security Requirements for a Mobile Grid System",
International Journal of Grid and High Performance Computing, vol. 1, IGI-Global, pp. 1-17, Jan 2009. DOI More..


Mobile Grid includes the characteristics of the Grid systems together with the peculiarities of Mobile Computing, withthe additional feature of supporting mobile users and resources ina seamless, transparent, secure and efficient way. Security ofthese systems, due to their distributed and open nature, isconsidered a topic of great interest. We are elaborating amethodology of development to build secure mobile grid systemsconsidering security on all life cycle. In this paper we present thepractical results applying our methodology to a real case,specifically we apply the part of security requirements analysis toobtain and identify security requirements of a specific applicationfollowing a set of tasks defined for helping us in the definition,identification and specification of the security requirements onour case study. The methodology will help us to build a securegrid application in a systematic and iterative way.

PDF icon rosado2009c.pdf (219.29 KB)
C. Alcaraz, J. Cumplido, and A. Triviño, "OCPP in the spotlight: threats and countermeasures for electric vehicle charging infrastructures 4.0",
International Journal of Information Security, Springer, In Press. DOI (I.F.: 2.427)More..


Undoubtedly, Industry 4.0 in the energy sector improves the conditions for automation, generation and distribution of energy, increasing the rate of electric vehicle manufacturing in recent years. As a result, more grid-connected charging infrastructures are being installed, whose charging stations (CSs) can follow standardized architectures, such as the one proposed by the open charge point protocol (OCPP). The most recent version of this protocol is v.2.0.1, which includes new security measures at device and communication level to cover those security issues identified in previous versions. Therefore, this paper analyzes OCPP-v2.0.1 to determine whether the new functions may still be susceptible to specific cyber and physical threats, and especially when CSs may be connected to microgrids. To formalize the study, we first adapted the well-known threat analysis methodology, STRIDE, to identify and classify threats in terms of control and energy, and subsequently we combine it with DREAD for risk assessment. The analyses indicate that, although OCPP-v2.0.1 has evolved, potential security risks still remain, requiring greater protection in the future.

Impact Factor: 2.427
Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2021)

C. Alcaraz, J. Lopez, and S. Wolthunsen, "OCPP Protocol: Security Threats and Challenges",
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 8, issue 5, IEEE, pp. 2452 - 2459, 02/2017. DOI (I.F.: 7.364)More..


One benefit postulated for the adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) is their ability to act as stabilizing entities in smart grids through bi-directional charging, allowing local or global smoothing of peaks and imbalances. This benefit, however, hinges indirectly on the reliability and security of the power flows thus achieved. Therefore this paper studies key security properties of the alreadydeployed Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) specifying communication between charging points and energy management systems. It is argued that possible subversion or malicious endpoints in the protocol can also lead to destabilization of power networks. Whilst reviewing these aspects, we focus, from a theoretical and practical standpoint, on attacks that interfere with resource reservation originating with the EV, which may also be initiated by a man in the middle, energy theft or fraud. Such attacks may even be replicated widely, resulting in over- or undershooting of power network provisioning, or the (total/partial) disintegration of the integrity and stability of power networks.

Impact Factor: 7.364
Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2017)

PDF icon AlcarazLopezWolthusen2017.pdf (389.27 KB)
J. Zhou, J. A. Onieva, and J. Lopez, "Optimised Multi-Party Certified Email Protocols",
Information Management & Computer Security Journal, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 350-366, 2005. More..


As a value-added service to deliver important data over the Internet with guaranteed receipt for each successful delivery, certified email has been discussed for years and a number of research papers appeared in the literature. But most of them deal with the two-party scenarios, i.e., there are only one sender and one recipient. In some applications, however, the same certified message may need to be sent to a set of recipients. In this paper, we presents two optimized multi-party certified email protocols. They have three major features. (1) A sender could notify multiple recipients of the same information while only those recipients who acknowledged are able to get the information. (2) Both the sender and the recipients can end a protocol run at any time without breach of fairness. (3) The exchange protocols are optimized, each of which have only three steps.

PDF icon Zhou2005.pdf (232.69 KB)