Collaborative Approaches for Cyber Security in Cyber-Physical Systems, Springer, In Press.
Security and Privacy for Big Data, Cloud Computing and Applications, Lizhe Wang, Wei Ren, Raymoond Choo and Fatos Xhafa, The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) , 09/2019.
Accountability and Security in the Cloud, M. Felici, and C. Fernandez-Gago Eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8937, Springer International Publishing, pp. 114-125, 2015. DOI
In this paper we tackle the problem of privacy and confidentiality in Identity Management as a Service (IDaaS). The adoption of cloud computing technologies by organizations has fostered the externalization of the identity management processes, shaping the concept of Identity Management as a Service. However, as it has happened to other cloud-based services, the cloud poses serious risks to the users, since they lose the control over their data. As part of this work, we analyze these concerns and present a model for privacy-preserving IDaaS, called BlindIdM, which is designed to provide data privacy protection through the use of cryptographic safeguards.
On Foundations of Security Analysis and Design IV, FOSAD 2006/2007, Springer, LNCS 4677, pp. 160-182, 2007. DOI
Critical Infrastructures are complex and highly interconnected systems that are crucial for the well-being of the society. Any type of failure can cause significant damage, affecting one or more sectors due to their inherent interdependency. Not only the infrastructures are critical, but also the information infrastructures that manage, control and supervise them. Due to the seriousness of the consequences, the protection of these critical (information) infrastructures must have the highest priority. It is the purpose of this book chapter to review and discuss about these infrastructures, to explain their elements, and to highlight their research and development issues. This chapter will also discuss the role of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology in the protection of these infrastructures.
28th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Symposium, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 290-301, 07/2015. DOI
Proxy Re-Encryption (PRE) is a type of Public-Key Encryption (PKE) which provides an additional re-encryption functionality. Although PRE is inherently more complex than PKE, attack models for PRE have not been developed further than those inherited from PKE. In this paper we address this gap and define a parametric family of attack models for PRE, based on the availability of both the decryption and re-encryption oracles during the security game. This family enables the definition of a set of intermediate security notions for PRE that ranges from ``plain'' IND-CPA to ``full'' IND-CCA. We analyze some relations among these notions of security, and in particular, the separations that arise when the re-encryption oracle leaks re-encryption keys. In addition, we discuss which of these security notions represent meaningful adversarial models for PRE. Finally, we provide an example of a recent ``CCA1- secure'' scheme from PKC 2014 whose security model does not capture chosen-ciphertext attacks through re-encryption and for which we describe an attack under a more realistic security notion. This attack emphasizes the fact that PRE schemes that leak re-encryption keys cannot achieve strong security notions.
III Simposio Español de Comercio Electronico (SCE’05), Universitat de les Illes Balears, pp. 235-244, 2005.
Los escenarios de comercio móvil existentes en la actualidad presentan muchas deficiencias. La mayoría de estos escenarios, como no podría ser de otra forma, tienen en cuenta aspectos relativos a la seguridad, prestando especial atención a las propiedades de Autenticación y Autorización. De entre los elementos esenciales que se utilizan para proporcionar estos servicios de seguridad, los perfiles son un elemento común que permiten la personalización de los servicios del usuario móvil. Sin embargo, los perfiles también precisan de una administración segura. En este trabajo presentamos unas consideraciones iniciales respecto a los distintos tipos de perfiles, sus niveles de seguridad para cada tipo, así como indicaciones para el almacenamiento de manera segura. Por lo tanto, analizaremos las distintas alternativas como medio de almacenamiento, discutiéndolas y prestando especial atención a las tarjetas inteligentes.
I Congreso Internacional Sociedad de la Información, pp. 423-428, 2002.
The important role of Public Key Infrastructures (PKIs) inside the general scope of Internet communication, and more precisely, inside electronic commerce, has driven us to the revision of actual procedures followed in the development of software of these elements that provide security and trust to the digital certification environment. In this work we introduce the actual results of a joint research project of the Security Group of the University of Malaga and the Department of Technology Innovation of Banesto regarding a PKI implementation. The originality of this work is that we have paid attention not only to functional aspects of the infrastructure, but also to the programming techniques used. Basically, we have developed a solution in which implementation has been guided by the increase in the study of software architectures and those paradigms that have emerged in parallel, as component orientation, software frameworks, and design patterns. The correct use of these techniques provide a different point of view that allows the development of every PKI building block in a modular and independent way.
32nd Annual IFIP WG 11.3 Conference on Data and Applications Security and Privacy XXXII, 2018, vol. 10980, Springer, Cham, pp. 69-84, 07/2018. DOI
Entities, such as people, companies, institutions, authorities and web sites live and exist in a conjoined world. In order to live and enjoy social benefits, entities need to share knowledge, resources and to cooperate together. The cooperation brings with it many new challenges and problems, among which one is the problem of trust. This area is also important for the Computer Science. When unfamiliar entities wish to cooperate, they do not know what to expect nor whether they can trust each other. Trust negotiation solves this problem by sequential exchanging credentials between entities, which have decided to establish a trust relationship in order to reach a common goal. Entities specify their own policies that handle a disclosure of confidential information to maintain their security and privacy. Policies are defined by means of a policy language. This paper aims to identify the most suitable policy language for trust negotiation. To do so, policy languages are analysed against a set of criteria for trust negotiation that are first established.
IX Reunión Española sobre Criptología y Seguridad de la información (RECSI’06), pp. 311-322, Septiembre, 2006.
Fifth International Conference on Information and Communications Security, LNCS 2836, Springer, pp. 112 - 123, October, 2003.
With emerging decentralized technologies, peer-to-peer (P2P) content distribution arises as a new model for storage and transmission of data. In this scenario, one peer can be playing different roles, either as a distributor or as a receiver of digital contents. In order to incentivize the legal distribution of these contents and prevent the network from free riders, we propose a charging model where distributors become merchants and receivers become customers. To help in the advertisement of digital contents and collection of payment details, an intermediary agent is introduced. An underlying P2P payment protocol presented in  is applied to this scenario without total trust on the intermediary agent.
Information Security Practice and Experience (ISPEC 2014), vol. 8434, Springer, pp. 15-27, 05/2014. DOI
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are exposed to many different types of attacks. Among these, the most devastating attack is to compromise or destroy the base station since all communications are addressed exclusively to it. Moreover, this feature can be exploited by a passive adversary to determine the location of this critical device. This receiver-location privacy problem can be reduced by hindering traffic analysis but the adversary may still obtain location information by capturing a subset of sensor nodes in the field. This paper addresses, for the first time, these two problems together in a single solution
European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, vol. 10493, 22nd European Symposium on Research in Computer Security (ESORICS 2017), pp. 402-418, 09/2017.
VII Jornadas Nacionales de Investigación en Ciberseguridad (JNIC 2022), pp. 122-129, 06/2022.
La privacidad contextual se refiere a la protección de toda aquella información que puede desprenderse de la interacción entre usuarios y/o servicios, exceptuando los datos que el propio usuario elige transmitir. La localización, el tiempo, los patrones de uso y los diferentes parámetros necesarios para realizar la comunicación son algunos ejemplos. Este tipo de privacidad es extremadamente importante en la computación edge debido al acercamiento de los recursos de la infraestructura a los usuarios. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer un análisis y clasificación de las diferentes soluciones propuestas en la literatura respecto a la privacidad contextual en entornos edge, mostrando tanto las capacidades de los mecanismos actuales como los desafíos en este campo.
12th International Workshop on Security and Trust Management (STM), vol. LNCS 9871, Springer, pp. 98-105, 09/2016. DOI
Software engineering and information security have traditionally followed divergent paths but lately some efforts have been made to consider security from the early phases of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). This paper follows this line and concentrates on the incorporation of trust negotiations during the requirements engineering phase. More precisely, we provide an extension to the SI* modelling language, which is further formalised using answer set programming specifications to support the automatic verification of the model and the detection of privacy conflicts caused by trust negotiations.
I Congreso Nacional Turismo y Tecnología de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TURITEC’99), pp. 99-110, Septiembre, 1999.
Uno de los servicios que cada día cobra más importancia y que promete un cambio radical para las empresas es el comercio electrónico en Internet, pero tradicionalmente las empresas relacionadas con el turismo sólo han empleado la red para darse a conocer y ofertar sus productos. La razón esencial es la desconfianza que existe sobre la seguridad de las transacciones llevadas a cabo en la red. La criptografía de clave pública proporciona servicios adecuados para garantizar la seguridad de esas transacciones. Pero en la actualidad, algunos de esos servicios están menos desarrollados que otros; un ejemplo de ellos es el servicio de No-Repudio. En este artículo se estudian distintas formas de ofrecer servicios de no-repudio y se analizan sus ventajas y desventajas en función de las necesidades del entorno en que se utilicen.
XIII Jornadas de Ingeniería Telemática (JITEL 2017), vol. Libro de actas, Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València, pp. 302-309, 01/2018, 2017. DOI
V Jornadas de Ingeniería Telemática (JITEL’05), pp. 375-382, September, 2005.
Spam is considered to be one of the biggest problems in messaging systems. In the area of email Spam, A high number of anti-spam schemes have been proposed and deployed, but the problem has yet been well addressed. In this paper, we introduce a new scheme, called pre-challenge scheme, which avoids problems that exists in other schemes such as delay of service and denial of service. Some new mechanisms are employed to reach a good balance between security against Spam and convenience to email users. In addition, our scheme can be used for protecting other types of messaging systems, such as Instant Messaging (IM) and Blogs, against Spam.
VII Reunión Española sobre Criptología y Seguridad de la Información (VII RECSI), pp. 485-497, Septiembre, 2002.
60th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC’04), IEEE Vehicular Technology Society Press, pp. 3271-3274, 2004.
Mobile agents are especially useful in electronic commerce, for both wired and wireless environments. Nevertheless, there are still many security issues on mobile agents to be addressed, for example, data confidentiality, non-repudiability, forward privacy, publicly verifiable forward integrity, insertion defense, truncation defense, etc. One of the hardest security problems for free roaming agents is truncation defense where two visited hosts (or one revisited host) can collude to discard the partial results collected between their respective visits. We present a new scheme satisfying those security requirements, especially protecting free roaming agents against result-truncation attack.
20th IFIP International Information Security Conference (IFIP-SEC’05), R. Sasaki, S. Qing, E. Okamoto, and H. Yoshiura Eds., Springer, pp. 281-294, May, 2005.
Spam turns out to be an increasingly serious problem to email users. A number of anti-spam schemes have been proposed and deployed, but the problem has yet been well addressed. One of those schemes is challenge-response, in which a challenge is imposed on an email sender. However, such a scheme introduces new problems for the users, e.g., delay of service and denial of service attacks. In this paper, we introduce a pre-challenge scheme that avoids those problems. It assumes each user has a challenge that is defined by the user himself/herself and associated with his/her email address, in such a way that an email sender can simultaneously retrieve a new receiver’s email address and challenge before sending an email in the first contact. Some new mechanisms are employed to reach a good balance between security against spam and convenience to email users.
International Conference on Infrastructure Security (InfraSec’02), LNCS 2437, Springer-Verlag, pp. 246-259, October, 2002.
Every communication system requiring security properties is certainly critical. In order to study the security of communication systems, we have developed a methodology for the application of the formal analysis techniques of communication protocols to the analysis of cryptographic ones. We have extended the design and analysis phases with security properties. Our methodology uses a specification technique based on the HMSC/MSC requirement languages, and translates it into a generic schema for the SDL specification language, which is used for the analysis. Thus, the technique allows the specification of security protocols using a standard formal language and uses Object-Orientation for reusability purposes. The final goal is not only the formal specification of a security system, but to examine the possible attacks, and later use the specification in more complex systems.
International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES’08), IEEE Computer Society, pp. 136-143, 2008.
A Grid computing system is defined as a platformthat supports distributed system applications which require fastaccess to a large quantity of distributed resources in acoordinated manner. With the development of wirelesstechnology and mobile devices, the Grid becomes the perfectcandidate so that mobile users can make complex works that addnew computational capacity to the Grid. Security of thesesystems, due to their distributed and open nature, receives greatinterest. The growing size and profile of the grid requirecomprehensive security solutions as they are critical to thesuccess of the endeavour. A formal approach to security in thesoftware life cycle is essential to protect corporate resources.However, little thought has been given to this aspect of softwaredevelopment. Due to its criticality, security should be integratedas a formal approach in the software life cycle. A methodology ofdevelopment for secure mobile Grid computing based systems isdefined, that is to say, an engineering process that defines thesteps to follow so that starting from the necessities to solve, wecan design and construct a secure Grid system with support formobile devices that is able to solve and cover these necessities.
IFIP Working Conference on User Identification and Privacy Protection, pp. 209-227, June, 1999.
While there is wide agreement on the immense potential of Internet, its growth and performance are adversely affected by security issues. Despite its impressive size, scope and reach, the Internet has not yet become a common vehicle for many of these new possibilities. Progress in fields as electronic commerce and government-citizen relationships have been limited by the open design of the network itself. Today, Public-Key Infrastructures are the basis of the protocols and tools needed to guarantee the security demanded in those fields. Trust management and user identification are also important issues that remain unresolved. This paper introduces a key management and user identification system, named Cert’eM, that is based on the electronic mail service. Cert’eM provides important advantages over existing Public-Key Infrastructures and user identification proposals.
3rd International Conference on Network and System Security (NSS 2009), IEEE Computer Sociaty, OCT 2009.
|"Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business (TRUSTBUS 2013)",
10th International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Digital Business (TRUSTBUS 2013), vol. LNCS 8058, Springer, Aug 2013.
|"Proceedings of the 3rd International ACMSigsoft Symposium on Architecting Critical Systems (ISARCS 2012)",
3rd International ACMSigsoft Symposium on Architecting Critical Systems (ISARCS 2012), ACM, Jun 2012.
|"Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS 2012)",
4th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS 2012), vol. LNCS, Springer, Dec 2012.
|"Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security (CRITIS 2012)",
7th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security (CRITIS 2012), vol. LNCS 7722, Springer, 2013.
|Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Network and System Security (NSS 2013)
, vol. LNCS, no. 7873, Springer, Jun 2013.
|"Public Key Infrastructure, 4th European PKI Workshop: Theory and Practice, EuroPKI 2007, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, June 28-30, 2007, Proceedings",
EuroPKI, vol. 4582, Springer, 2007.
|"Public Key Infrastructure, First European PKIWorkshop: Research and Applications, EuroPKI 2004, Samos Island, Greece, June 25-26, 2004, Proceedings",
EuroPKI, vol. 3093, Springer, 2004.
IEEE Security & Privacy , vol. 20, issue 1, IEEE, pp. 23 - 32, 01/2022. DOI (I.F.: 3.573)
This article introduces a privacy manager for IoT data based on Edge Computing. This poses the advantage that privacy is enforced before data leaves the control of the user, who is provided with a tool to express data sharing preferences based on a novel context-aware privacy language.
Computer and Security, vol. 29, elsevier, pp. 501-514, 2010. DOI (I.F.: 0.889)
Network and device heterogeneity, nomadic mobility, intermittent connectivity and, more generally, extremely dynamic operating conditions, are major challenges in the design of security infrastructures for pervasive computing. Yet, in a ubiquitous computing environment, limitations of traditional solutions for authentication and authorization can be overcome with a pervasive public key infrastructure (pervasive-PKI). This choice allows the validation of credentials of users roaming between heterogeneous networks, even when global connectivity is lost and some services are temporarily unreachable. Proof-of-concept implementations and testbed validation results demonstrate that strong security can be achieved for users and applications through the combination of traditional PKI services with a number of enhancements like: (i) dynamic and collaborative trust model, (ii) use of attribute certificates for privilege management, and (iii) modular architecture enabling nomadic mobility and enhanced with reconfiguration capabilities.
International Journal of Information Security (IJIS), vol. 2, no. 2, Springer, pp. 91-102, 2004.
Public-Key Infrastructures (PKIs) are considered the basis of the protocols and tools needed to guarantee the security demanded for new Internet applications like electronic commerce, government-citizen relationships and digital distribution. This paper introduces a new infrastructure design, Cert’eM, a key management and certification system that is based on the structure of the electronic mail service and on the principle of near-certification. Cert’eM provides secure means to identify users and distribute their public-key certificates, enhances the efficiency of revocation procedures, and avoids scalability and synchronization problems. Because we have considered the revocation problem as priority in the design process, and with a big influence in the rest of the PKI components, we have developed an alternative solution to the use of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs), which has become one of the strongest points in this new scheme.
Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 59, Elsevier, pp. 301–314, 01/2016. (I.F.: 3.500)
Interoperability of distributed systems in charge of monitoring and maintaining the different critical domains belonging to Smart Grid scenarios comprise the central topic of this paper. Transparency in control transactions under a secure and reliable architecture is the aim of the policy enforcement system proposed here. The approach is based on the degree of observation of a context and on the role-based access control model defined by the IEC-62351-8 standard. Only authenticated and authorised entities are able to take control of those distributed elements (e.g., IEC-61850 objects) located at distant geographical locations and close to the critical infrastructures (e.g., substations). To ensure the effectiveness of the approach, it is built on graphical-theoretical formulations corresponding to graph theory, where it is possible to illustrate power control networks through power-law distributions whose monitoring relies on structural controllability theory. The interconnection of these distributions is subject to a network architecture based on the concept of the supernode where the interoperability depends on a simple rule-based expert system. This expert system focuses not only on accepting or denying access, but also on providing the means to attend to extreme situations, avoiding, as much as possible, the overloading of the communication. Through one practical study we also show the functionalities of the approach and the benefits that the authorisation itself can bring to the interoperability.
Computers & Security, vol. 45, Elsevier, pp. 186-198, 09/2014. DOI (I.F.: 1.031)
This paper introduces a sealed bid and multi-currency auction using secure multiparty computation (SMC).
Two boolean functions, a comparison and multiplication function, have been designed as required to apply SMC. These functions are applied without revealing any information, not even to trusted third parties such as the auctioneer. A type of Zero Knowledge proof, discreet proof, has been implemented with three variants, interactive, regular and reduced non interactive proofs. These proofs make it possible to verify the correctness of the functions whilst preserving the privacy of the bid values. Moreover, a system performance evaluation of the proposal has been realized on heterogeneous platforms, including a mobile platform. The evaluation concludes that our proposal is practical even on mobile platforms.
Computers & Security, vol. 39 (B), Elsevier, pp. 117-126, 11/2013. DOI (I.F.: 1.172)
Continuous authentication is mainly associated with the use of biometrics to guarantee that a resource is being accessed by the same user throughout the usage period. Wireless devices can also serve as a supporting technology for continuous authentication or even as a complete alternative to biometrics when accessing proximity-based services. In this paper we present the implementation of a secure, non-invasive continuous authentication scheme supported by the use of Wearable Wireless Devices (WWD), which allow users to gain access to proximity-based services while preserving their privacy. Additionally we devise an improved scheme that circumvents some of the limitations of our implementation.
Information Sciences, vol. 321, Elsevier, pp. 205 - 223, 07/2015. DOI (I.F.: 3.364)
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are continually exposed to many types of attacks. Among these, the attacks targeted at the base station are the most devastating ones since this essential device processes and analyses all traffic generated in the network. Moreover, this feature can be exploited by a passive adversary to determine its location based on traffic analysis. This receiver-location privacy problem can be reduced by altering the traffic pattern of the network but the adversary may still be able to reach the base station if he gains access to the routing tables of a number of sensor nodes. In this paper we present HISP-NC (Homogenous Injection for Sink Privacy with Node Compromise protection), a receiver-location privacy solution that consists of two complementary schemes which protect the location of the base station in the presence of traffic analysis and node compromise attacks. The HISP-NC data transmission protocol prevents traffic analysis by probabilistically hiding the flow of real traffic with moderate amounts of fake traffic. Moreover, HISP-NC includes a perturbation mechanism that modifies the routing tables of the nodes to introduce some level of uncertainty in attackers capable of retrieving the routing information from the nodes. Our scheme is validated both analytically and experimentally through extensive simulations.
European CIIP Newsletter, vol. 11, issue 26, no. 1, European CIIP Newsletter, pp. 27-29, 03/2017.
Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 87, Elsevier, pp. 193-209, 06/2017. DOI (I.F.: 3.991)
This paper analyzes the secure access delegation problem, which occurs naturally in the cloud, and postulate that Proxy Re-Encryption is a feasible cryptographic solution, both from the functional and efficiency perspectives. Proxy re-encryption is a special type of public-key encryption that permits a proxy to transform ciphertexts from one public key to another, without the proxy being able to learn any information about the original message. Thus, it serves as a means for delegating decryption rights, opening up many possible applications that require of delegated access to encrypted data. In particular, sharing information in the cloud is a prime example. In this paper, we review the main proxy re-encryption schemes so far, and provide a detailed analysis of their characteristics. Additionally, we also study the efficiency of selected schemes, both theoretically and empirically, based on our own implementation. Finally, we discuss some applications of proxy re-encryption, with a focus on secure access delegation in the cloud.
Revista SIC: Seguridad en Informática y Comunicaciones, vol. 49, pp. 1-2, 2002.