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C. Alcaraz, and J. Lopez, "Diagnosis Mechanism for Accurate Monitoring in Critical Infrastructure Protection",
Computer Standards & Interfaces, vol. 36, issue 3, Elsevier, pp. 501-512, 2014. DOI (I.F.: 0.879)More..


 Situational awareness for critical infrastructure protection, such as for energy control systems, has become a topic of interest in recent years. Despite attempts to address this area of research, more progress is still necessary to find attractive solutions that help bring about prevention and response at all times from anywhere and at any time. Given this need, we therefore propose in this paper, a smart mechanism able to offer a wide-area situational awareness with the ability to: (i) Control the real state of the observed infrastructure, (ii) respond to emergency situations and (iii) assess the degree of  ccuracy of the entire control system. To address these aspects, the mechanism is based on a hierarchical configuration of industrial sensors for control, the ISA100.11a standard for the prioritization and alarm management, and the F-Measure technique to study the level of accuracy of a sensor inside a neighbourhood. As proof of the functionality and feasibility of the mechanism for critical contexts, a software application implemented in nesC and Java is also presented in this paper.

Impact Factor: 0.879
Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2014)

PDF icon alcaraz2013a.pdf (1.94 MB)
R. Bars, J. Gomez, M. Mahdi, C. Alcaraz, and R. Roman, "Digital Home Networking: Standards",
Digital Home Networking, R. Carbou, E. Exposito, R. Roman, and M. Diaz Eds., no. 7130, John Wiley & Sons Inc., pp. 60-96, 2011.
C. Alcaraz, and J. Lopez, "Digital Twin: A Comprehensive Survey of Security Threats",
IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE, In Press. DOI (I.F.: 25.249)More..
Impact Factor: 25.249
Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2020)

J. Lopez, J. E. Rubio, and C. Alcaraz, "Digital Twins for Intelligent Authorization in the B5G-enabled Smart Grid",
IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 28, issue 2, IEEE, pp. 48-55, 04/2021. DOI (I.F.: 11.979)More..


Beyond fifth generation (B5G) communication networks and computation paradigms in the edge are expected to be integrated into power grid infrastructures over the coming years. In this sense, AI technologies will play a fundamental role to efficiently manage dynamic information flows of future applications, which impacts the authorization policies applied in such a complex scenario. This article studies how digital twins can evolve their context awareness capabilities and simulation technologies to anticipate faults or to detect cyber-security issues in real time, and update access control policies accordingly. Our study analyzes the evolution of monitoring platforms and architecture decentralization, including the application of machine learning and blockchain technologies in the smart grid, toward the goal of implementing autonomous and self-learning agents in the medium and long term. We conclude this study with future challenges on applying digital twins to B5G-based smart grid deployments.

Impact Factor: 11.979
Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2020)

PDF icon lopez2020.pdf (1.72 MB)
J. E. Rubio, C. Alcaraz, R. Rios, R. Roman, and J. Lopez, "Distributed Detection of APTs: Consensus vs. Clustering",
25th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security (ESORICS 2020), vol. 12308, pp. 174-192, 09/2020. DOI More..
PDF icon 1846.pdf (1.07 MB)
R. Roman, J. Lopez, and C. Alcaraz, "Do Wireless Sensor Networks Need to be Completely Integrated into the Internet?",
3rd CompanionAble Workshop - Future Internet of People, Things and Services (IoPTS) eco-Systems, xxxx, pp. xxxx, December, 2009. More..


Wireless sensor networks are considered as an integral part of the Internet of Things paradigm. Not only they provide a virtual presence to elements of the real world, but also allow any computationalsystem to know about the physical state of those elements thanks to the use of embedded sensors. In order to belong to the Internet of Things, the elements of a sensor network can implement Internet protocols and services such as the TCP/IP stack and web services. Still, a question that must be raised at this point of time is whether all sensor network applications should be completely integrated into the Internet or not. The purpose of this paper is to analyze this question, reviewing the challenges and security requirements of Internet-enabled sensor networks.

PDF icon roman2009.pdf (106.88 KB)
C. Alcaraz, J. Lopez, and K-K. Raymond Choo, "Dynamic Restoration in Interconnected RBAC-based Cyber-Physical Control Systems",
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on e-Business and Telecommunications (SECRYPT 2016), pp. 19-27, 2016. DOI More..


Increasingly, automatic restoration is an indispensable security measure in control systems (e.g. those used in critical infrastructure sectors) due to the importance of ensuring the functionality of monitoring infrastructures. Modernizing the interconnection of control systems to provide interoperability between different networks, at a low cost, is also a critical requirement in control systems. However, automated recovery mechanisms are currently costly, and ensuring interoperability particularly at a low cost remains a topic of scientific challenge. This is the gap we seek to address in this paper. More specifically, we propose a restoration model for interconnected contexts, taking into account the theory of supernode and structural controllability, as well as the recommendations given by the IEC-62351-8 standard (which are mainly based on the implementation of a role-based access control system).

PDF icon 1585.pdf (2.17 MB)