Export results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
Filters: Author is Ana Nieto  [Clear All Filters]
A. Nieto, R. Rios, and J. Lopez, "IoT-Forensics meets Privacy: Towards Cooperative Digital Investigations", In Sensors, vol. 18, issue 2, no. 492, MDPI, 02/2018. ISI JCR Impact Factor 2016: 2.677 DOI More..


IoT-Forensics is a novel paradigm for the acquisition of electronic evidence whose operation is conditioned by the peculiarities of the Internet of Things (IoT) context. As a branch of computer forensics, this discipline respects the most basic forensic principles of preservation, traceability, documentation, and authorization. The digital witness approach also promotes such principles in the context of the IoT while allowing personal devices to cooperate in digital investigations by voluntarily providing electronic evidence to the authorities. However, this solution is highly dependent on the willingness of citizens to collaborate and they may be reluctant to do so if the sensitive information within their personal devices is not sufficiently protected when shared with the investigators. In this paper, we provide the digital witness approach with a methodology that enables citizens to share their data with some privacy guarantees. We apply the PRoFIT methodology, originally defined for IoT-Forensics environments, to the digital witness approach in order to unleash its full potential. Finally, we show the feasibility of a PRoFIT-compliant digital witness with two use cases.

Impact Factor: 2.677
Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2016)

PDF icon nrlSensors2018.pdf (14.4 MB)
G. Fernandez, and A. Nieto, "Configuración de honeypots adaptativos para análisis de malware", In III Jornadas Nacionales de Investigación en Ciberseguridad (JNIC 2017), 2017. More..


Este trabajo propone una arquitectura de despliegue de honeypots adaptativos, configurados dinámicamente a partir de los requisitos del malware que intenta infectar los servicios trampa. A diferencia de otros trabajos sobre honeypots adaptativos, los mecanismos de adaptabilidad aquí diseñados tomarán como base información de inteligencia sobre amenazas actuales, indicadores de compromiso (IOCs) conocidos, así como información de actividades sospechosas actualmente en estudio por los analistas. Este conocimiento será empleado para configurar honeypots de manera dinámica, permitiendo satisfacer los requisitos necesarios para que el malware pueda desplegar toda su operativa. 

PDF icon 1650.pdf (314.82 KB)
A. Nieto, R. Rios, and J. Lopez, "Digital Witness and Privacy in IoT: Anonymous Witnessing Approach", In 16th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications (TrustCom 2017), IEEE, pp. 642-649, 08/2017. More..


The digital witness approach defines the collaboration between IoT devices - from wearables to vehicles - to provide digital evidence through a Digital Chain of Custody to an authorised entity. As one of the cores of the digital witness, binding credentials unequivocally identify the user behind the digital witness. The objective of this article is to perform a critical analysis of the digital witness approach from the perspective of privacy, and to propose solutions that help include some notions of privacy in the scheme (for those cases where it is possible). In addition, digital anonymous witnessing as a tradeoff mechanism between the original approach and privacy requirements is proposed. This is a clear challenge in this context given the restriction that the identities of the links in the digital chain of custody should be known. 

PDF icon 1654.pdf (1.44 MB)
A. Nieto, N. Nomikos, J. Lopez, and C. Skianis, "Dynamic Knowledge-based Analysis in non-Secure 5G Green Environments using Contextual Data", In IEEE Systems Journal, vol. 11, issue 4, no. 99, IEEE, pp. 2479-2489, 12/2017. ISI JCR Impact Factor 2016: 3.882 DOI More..


The growing number of parameters in heteroge- neous networks, as is the case of the fifth generation (5G) Green networks, greatly complicates the analysis of the Security and Quality of Service Tradeoff (SQT). However, studying these types of relationships is crucial in Future Internet scenarios to prevent potential points of failure and to enhance the use of limited resources, increasing the user’s experience. Therefore, it is fundamental to provide tools and models for training, so that the users understand these dependencies and solve them prior to deploying new solutions. In this paper, a Recommendation System for SQT (SQT-RS) is deployed in 5G Green systems, considering the particular case of relay networks and the impact of eavesdropping and jamming contexts on the models generated by the user, aided by SQT-RS. With this goal in mind, we provide a component for the user to automatically select specific contexts based on 5G Green capabilities. 

Impact Factor: 3.882
Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2016)

PDF icon NietNLS15.pdf (1.13 MB)
A. Nieto, R. Rios, and J. Lopez, "A Methodology for Privacy-Aware IoT-Forensics", In 16th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications (TrustCom 2017), IEEE, pp. 626-633, 08/2017. More..
PDF icon 1652.pdf (517.19 KB)
G. Fernandez, A. Nieto, and J. Lopez, "Modeling Malware-driven Honeypots", In 14th International Conference On Trust, Privacy & Security In Digital Business (TrustBus 2017), vol. 10442, Springer International Publishing, pp. 130-144, 08/2017. More..


In this paper we propose the Hogney architecture for the deployment of malware-driven honeypots. This new concept refers to honeypots that have been dynamically configured according to the environment expected by malware. The adaptation mechanism designed here is built on services that offer up-to-date and relevant intelligence information on current threats. Thus, the Hogney architecture takes advantage of recent Indicators Of Compromise (IOC) and information about suspicious activity currently being studied by analysts. The information gathered from these services is then used to adapt honeypots to fulfill malware requirements, inviting them to unleash their full strength.

PDF icon 1656.pdf (406.21 KB)
A. Nieto, R. Rios, and J. Lopez, "PRoFIT: modelo forense-IoT con integración de requisitos de privacidad", In XIII Jornadas de Ingeniería Telemática (JITEL 2017), vol. Libro de actas, pp. 302-309, 01/2018, 2017. More..
PDF icon 1655.pdf (456.17 KB)
A. Nieto, and R. Rios, "Requisitos y soluciones de privacidad para la testificación digital", In III Jornadas Nacionales de Investigación en Ciberseguridad (JNIC 2017), vol. Actas del JNIC 2017, Servicio de Publicaciones de la URJC, pp. 51-58, 2017. More..
PDF icon 1648.pdf (1.2 MB)
A. Nieto, R. Roman, and J. Lopez, "Arquitectura funcional para la cadena de custodia digital en objetos de la IoT", In XIV Reunión Española sobre Criptología y Seguridad de la Información, pp. 168-173, 10/2016. More..


En la Internet de los Objetos (IoT, por sus siglas en inglés), los ataques pueden ser perpetrados desde dispositivos que enmascaran su rastro ayudándose de la densidad de objetos y usuarios. Actualmente la idea de que los dispositivos de usuario almacenan evidencias que pueden ser muy valiosas para frenar ataques es bien conocida. Sin embargo, la colaboración de éstos para denunciar posibles abusos telemáticos aún está por definir. Los testigos digitales son dispositivos concebidos para definir la participación de dispositivos de usuario en una cadena de custodia digital. La idea es que las evidencias se generan, almacenan y transfieren siguiendo los requisitos marcados por las normas actuales (p.ej. UNE 71505), pero respetando las restricciones en recursos de los dispositivos. En este artículo proponemos una arquitectura funcional para la implementación del concepto de testigo digital en dispositivos heterogéneos de la IoT.

PDF icon 1582.pdf (921.02 KB)
A. Nieto, R. Roman, and J. Lopez, "Digital Witness: Digital Evidence Management Framework for the Internet of Things", In ERCIM News, no. 106, ERCIM EEIG, pp. 9-9, 07/2016.
A. Nieto, R. Roman, and J. Lopez, "Digital Witness: Safeguarding Digital Evidence by using Secure Architectures in Personal Devices", In IEEE Network, IEEE Communications Society, pp. 12-19, 2016. ISI JCR Impact Factor 2016: 7.230 DOI More..


Personal devices contain electronic evidence associated with the behaviour of their owners and other devices in their environment, which can help clarify the facts of a cyber-crime scene. These devices are usually analysed as containers of proof. However, it is possible to harness the boom of personal devices to define the concept of digital witnesses, where personal devices are able to actively acquire, store, and transmit digital evidence to an authorised entity, reliably and securely. This article introduces this novel concept, providing a preliminary analysis on the management of digital evidence and the technologies that can be used to implement it with security guarantees in IoT environments. Moreover, the basic building blocks of a digital witness are defined.

Impact Factor: 7.230
Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2016)

PDF icon ieeenet16-nrl.pdf (1002.02 KB)
A. Nieto, R. Roman, and J. Lopez, "Testificación Digital", In Revista SIC, vol. 122, Ediciones CODA, pp. 94-98, Nov 2016. More..


El creciente número de dispositivos interconectados trae consigo problemas de seguridad bien conocidos; por ejemplo, aquellos debidos a las vulnerabilidades en protocolos muy diversos –muchos de ellos propietarios– y al factor de error humano introducido por los usuarios. Sin embargo, cabe preguntarse cómo podemos usar el despliegue de tales dispositivos en beneficio de la ciberseguridad. En el proyecto IoTest se está desarrollando una solución, el Testigo Digital, que permitirá a los dispositivos personales con arquitectura de seguridad embebida reaccionar ante ataques virtuales, protegiéndonos de los ciberataques emergentes.

PDF icon nrlSIC16.pdf (476.98 KB)
A. Nieto, R. Roman, and J. Lopez, "Testigo digital: delegación vinculante de evidencias electrónicas para escenarios IoT", In II Jornadas Nacionales de Investigación en Ciberseguridad (JNIC 2016), pp. 109-116, 06/2016. More..


En un mundo en el que los usuarios dependen cada vez más de sus dispositivos, éstos almacenan gran cantidad de datos y son una fuente muy valiosa de información sobre su entorno. Sin embargo, la heterogeneidad y la densidad de los objetos conectados, características propias de la Internet de las Cosas (IoT), sirven de velo para ocultar conductas maliciosas que afectan a estos dispositivos, sin que quede rastro de tales acciones. En este artículo definimos el concepto de testigo digital: funcionalidad que permitirá a los dispositivos personales y otros objetos colaborar para implementar una cadena de custodia digital en la IoT. El fin perseguido es ofrecer soluciones que mitiguen los efectos de la ciberdelincuencia, amparándose en la colaboración de los dispositivos con arquitecturas de seguridad embebidas para alertar de conductas maliciosas, y dejar constancia de éstas.

PDF icon 1578.pdf (2.04 MB)
A. Nieto, and J. Lopez, "Contextualising Heterogeneous Information in Unified Communications with Security Restrictions", In Computer Communications, vol. 68, Elsevier, pp. 33-46, 09/2015. ISI JCR Impact Factor 2015: 2.099 DOI More..


The lack of abstraction in a growing semantic, virtual and abstract world poses new challenges for assessing security and QoS tradeoffs. For example, in Future Internet scenarios, where Unified Communications (UC) will take place, being able to predict the final devices that will form the network is not always possible. Without this information the analysis of the security and QoS tradeoff can only be based on partial information to be completed when more information about the environment is available. In this paper, we extend the description of context-based parametric relationship model, providing a tool for assessing the security and QoS tradeoff (SQT) based on interchangeable contexts. Our approach is able to use the heterogeneous information produced by scenarios where UC is present.

Impact Factor: 2.099
Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2015)

PDF icon NL-COMCOM15.pdf (2 MB)
A. Nieto, and J. Lopez, "A Context-based Parametric Relationship Model (CPRM) to Measure the Security and QoS tradeoff in Configurable Environments", In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'14), IEEE Communications Society, pp. 755-760, 06/2014. DOI More..


Heterogeneity of future networks requires the use of extensible models to understand the Security and QoS tradeoff. We believe that a good starting point is to analyze the Security and QoS tradeoff from a parametric point of view and, for this reason, in a previous paper, we defined the Parametric Rela- tionship Model (PRM) to define relationships between Security and QoS parameters. In this paper, we extend that approach in order to change the behaviour of the model so that different contexts in the same system are considered; that is, to provide a Context-based Parametric Relationship Model (CPRM). The final aim is to provide useful tools for system administrators in order to help them deal with Security and QoS tradeoff issues in the configuration of the environment. 

PDF icon 431.pdf (1.12 MB)
A. Nieto, "Evaluation of Dynamic Instantiation in CPRM-based Systems", In 9th International Conference on Risk and Security of Internet and Systems (CRiSIS'14), vol. 8924, Springer, pp. 52-66, 2014. DOI More..


Context-based Parametric Relationship Models (CPRMs) reduce the complexity of working with various numbers of parameters and dependencies, by adding particular contexts to the final scheme when it is required, dynamically. In this paper the cost of including new information in CPRM is properly analysed, considering the information in the parametric trees defined for the parameters in the CPRM-based system. Some strategies for mitigating the cost of the instantiation process are proposed.


A. Nieto, and J. Lopez, "Herramienta para la Compensación de Parámetros de QoS y Seguridad", In XIII Reunión Española sobre Criptología y Seguridad de la Información (RECSI 2014), pp. 303-308, 09/2014. More..


El análisis conjunto de mecanismos de seguridad y QoS es esencial para las redes heterogéneas donde diversos dispositivos pueden coexistir en entornos dinámicos. En concreto, los dispositivos no siempre pueden ser conocidos, por lo que diferentes requisitos y mecanismos pueden surgir para el análisis. En este artículo, proponemos una herramienta para facilitar la configuración de entornos basada en el análisis paramétrico de dependencias, tomando como base de conocimiento un conjunto de parámetros de seguridad y QoS. Esta forma de análisis de parámetros a alto nivel permite considerar las dependencias y la compensación entre mecanismos con independencia del sistema de información subyacente. Posibilita por tanto evaluar el impacto que tales mecanismos, y otros definidos acorde al modelo, tienen sobre un sistema previo a su despliegue. 

PDF icon 909.pdf (470.04 KB)
A. Nieto, and J. Lopez, "A Model for the Analysis of QoS and Security Tradeoff in Mobile Platforms", In Mobile Networks and Applications (MONET) Journal, vol. 19, issue 1, Springer US, pp. 64-78, 02/2014. ISI JCR Impact Factor 2014: 1.045 DOI More..


Today, mobile platforms are multimedia devices that provide different types of traffic with the consequent particular performance demands and, besides, security concerns (e.g. privacy). However, Security and QoS requirements quite often conflict to a large degree; the mobility and heterogeneous paradigm of the Future Internet makes coexistence even more difficult, posing new challenges to overcome. Probably, one of the main challenges is to identify the specific reasons why Security and QoS mechanisms are so related to each other. In this paper, we present a Parametric Relationship Model (PRM) to identify the Security and QoS dependencies, and to elaborate on the Security and QoS tradeoff. In particular, we perform an analysis that focus on the mobile platform environment and, consequently, also considers subjective parameters such user’s experience, that is crucial for increasing the usability of new solutions in the Future Internet. The final aim of our contribution is to facilitate the development of secure and efficient services for mobile platforms.

Impact Factor: 1.045
Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2014)

PDF icon nieto2013mone.pdf (666.18 KB)
N. Nomikos, et al., "Relay Selection for Secure 5G Green Communications", In Telecommunication Systems , Springer US, pp. 1-19, 11/2014. ISI JCR Impact Factor 2014: 0.705 DOI More..


In this article, we present relay selection policies in applications with secrecy requirements which are of interest in the fifth generation (5G) of wireless networks. More specifically, we provide a classification of relays based on their distinct communication attributes, such as processing, multiple antennas, storage, channel estimation, density and security level. In addition, we discuss the level of efficiency exhibited by each relay class, regarding their impact in delay-critical applications and green communications applications, while aiming at a specific security level at the physical layer. Then, relay selection policies are proposed taking into consideration the goals set by each application. Numerical evaluation of the proposed policies in terms of the average secrecy rate, average delay and power reduction show improved performance compared to other state-of-the-art solutions. 

Impact Factor: 0.705
Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2014)

A. Nieto, and J. Lopez, "Security and QoS Tradeoff Recommendation System (SQT-RS) for Dynamic Assessing CPRM-based Systems", In 10th ACM International Symposium on QoS and Security for Wireless and Mobile Networks (Q2SWinet'14), ACM, pp. 25-32, 09/2014. DOI More..


Context-based Parametric Relationship Models (CPRM) define complex dependencies between different types of parameters. In particular, Security and QoS relationships, that may occur at different levels of abstraction, are easily identified using CPRM. However, the growing number of parameters and relationships, typically due to the heterogeneous scenarios of future networks, increase the complexity of the final diagrams used in the analysis, and makes the current solution for assessing Security and QoS tradeoff (SQT) impractical for untrained users. In this paper, we define a recommendation system based on contextual parametric relationships in accordance with the definition of CPRM. The inputs for the system are generated dynamically based on the context provided by CPRM-based systems.


PDF icon 932.pdf (626.17 KB)
A. Nieto, and J. Lopez, "Analysis and Taxonomy of Security/QoS tradeoff solutions for the Future Internet", In Security and Communication Networks (SCN) Journal, vol. 7, issue 12, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 2778-2803, 2013. ISI JCR Impact Factor 2013: 0.433 DOI More..


Motivated by the growing convergence of diverse types of networks and the rise of concepts such as Future Internet (FI), in this paper we analyse the coexistence of security mechanisms and Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms in resourceconstrained networks, that are relevant types of networks within the FI environment. More precisely, we analyse the current state of the research on security and QoS in the integration of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) and cellular networks. Furthermore, we propose a taxonomy to identify similarities among these technologies, as well as the requirements for network interconnection. As a result, we define a dependency-based model for the analysis of Security and QoS tradeoff, and also define a high-level integration architecture for networks in the FI setting. The final goal is to provide a critical point of view that allows to assess whether such an integration of networks can be both secure and efficient.

Impact Factor: 0.433
Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2013)

PDF icon nietoscn13.pdf (1.67 MB)
A. Nieto, and J. Lopez, "Security and QoS relationships in Mobile Platforms", In The 4th FTRA International Conference on Computer Science and its Applications (CSA 2012), Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering 203, Springer Netherlands, pp. 13-21, 2012. DOI More..


Mobile platforms are becoming a fundamental part of the user’s daily life. The human-device relationship converts the devices in a repository of personal data that may be stolen or modified by malicious users. Moreover, wireless capabilities open the door to several malicious devices, and mobility represents an added difficulty in the detection of malicious behavior and in the prevention of the same. Furthermore, smartphones are subject to quality of service (QoS) restrictions, due to the user needs for multimedia applications and, in general, the need to be always-on. However, Security and QoS requirements are largely confronted and the mobility and heterogeneous paradigm on the Future Internet makes its coexistence even more difficult, posing new challenges to overcome. We analyze the principal challenges related with Security and QoS tradeoffs in mobile platforms. As a result of our analysis we provide parametric relationships between security and QoS parameters focused on mobile platforms.

PDF icon Nieto2012c.pdf (1.4 MB)
A. Nieto, and J. Lopez, "Security and QoS tradeoffs: towards a FI perspective", In Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2012 26th International Conference on, IEEE, pp. 745-750, 03/2012. DOI More..


 Motivated by the growing convergence of diverse types of networks and the raise of new concepts such as Future Internet (FI), in this paper we present an analysis of current research on the development of security mechanisms in a tradeoff with Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms. More precisely, we pay attention to the Security and QoS problems in resource-constrained networks that are candidates to be an important part of the FI due to their proximity to the user or because of their contribution to the information society. We analyse the current state of the research on security and QoS in the integration of sensors, MANET and cellular networks, with the aim of providing a critical point of view, allowing us to assess whether it is possible that such integration of networks is both secure and efficient.

PDF icon Nieto2012b.pdf (1.32 MB)
A. Nieto, and G. Fernandez, "Sistema Colaborativo de Detección y Reacción ante Intrusiones basado en Intel vPro", In XII Reunión Española sobre Criptología y Seguridad de la Información (RECSI 2012), pp. 45-50, Sep 2012. More..


En este trabajo proponemos una plataforma para el desarrollo de un sistema colaborativo para la detección y reacción ante intrusiones, empleando como base las tecnologías presentes en Intel vPro. La solución presentada está dirigida a solventar la necesidad de implantación de nuevas tecnologías que posibiliten la reacción ante ataques, independientemente del sistema operativo usado. Con este fin, en este trabajo abordamos tres puntos fundamentales: la detección de intrusiones colaborativa, la respuesta automática de los nodos ante la detección de una intrusión y el uso de herramientas que posibiliten asegurar la confianza en un nodo. En un sistema colaborativo como el que se propone aquí, un aspecto clave para la seguridad es la protección de las comunicaciones entre los mecanismos de detección y reacción frente a intrusiones. La modificación o el simple acceso a los datos intercambiados por tales sistemas supone un grave riesgo para la seguridad del entorno. Como resultado hemos desarrollado un prototipo preliminar para probar la solución propuesta en un escenario de ataque real.

PDF icon NF_RECSI12.pdf (534.44 KB)
A. Nieto, and J. Lopez, "Traffic Classifier for Heterogeneous and Cooperative Routing through Wireless Sensor Networks", In Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2012 26th International Conference on, IEEE, pp. 607-612, 03/2012. DOI More..



Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are networks composed of autonomous devices manufactured to solve a specific problem, with limited computational capabilities and resource-constrained (e.g. limited battery). WSN are used to monitor physical or environmental conditions within an area (e.g. temperature, humidity). The popularity of the WSN is growing, precisely due to the wide range of sensors available. As a result, these networks are being deployed as part of several infrastructures. However, sensors are designed to collaborate only with sensors of the same type. In this sense, taking advantage of the heterogeneity of WSN in order to provide common services, like it is the case of routing, has not been sufficiently considered. For this reason, in this paper we propose a routing protocol based on traffic classification and role-assignment to enable heterogeneous WSN for cooperation. Our approach considers both QoS requirements and lifetime maximization to allow the coexistence of different applications in the heterogeneous network infrastructure.


PDF icon Nieto2012a.pdf (372.72 KB)
P. Najera, and A. Nieto, "Network Technologies", In Digital Home Networking, R. Carbou, E. Exposito, and R. Roman Eds., Wiley-ISTE, pp. 17 - 58, 2011.